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FAQ: Special Characters for the Web: ISO 8859-1

You may often need special characters that are not on your keyboard. To create these, you use codes.

There are two systems: Code and Entity. Entity is easier to use. Just remember that you place an ampersand first, the abbreviation for the character (such as "amp" for ampersand), and then a semicolon to close. For example, to produce an ampersand (&), type & in your HTML and it will appear as & in your browser.

Note: You can also enter characters via the numeric keypad into any Windows program. See the instructions and table at the end of this document.

Short Table With the Most Useful Characters

Description              Char  Code    Entity
_____________________________________________
Quotation                   "  "   "
Ampersand                   &  &   &
Less-than sign              <  &#60;   &lt;
Greater-than sign           >  &#62;   &gt;
at symbol                   @  &#64; 
Euro                        €  &#128;
Dagger                      †  &#134;
0/00                        ‰  &#137;
Trademark                   ™  &#153;
Angle quote mark, left        &#171;  &laquo;
Angle quote mark, right       &#187;  &raquo;
Inverted exclamation          &#161;  &iexcl;
Inverted question mark        &#191;  &iquest;
Cent sign                     &#162;  &cent;
Pound sign                    &#163;  &pound;
Currency sign                 &#164;  &curren;
Yen sign                      &#165;  &yen;
Broken vertical bar           &#166;  &brvbar;
Section sign                  &#167;  &sect;
Copyright sign                &#169;  &copy;
Circled R registered sign     &#174;  &reg;
Middle dot                    &#183;  &middot;
Fraction 1/4                  &#188;  &frac14;
Fraction 1/2                  &#189;  &frac12;
Fraction 3/4                  &#190;  &frac34; 
Superscript 1                 &#185;  &sup1;
Superscript 2                 &#178;  &sup2;
Superscript 3                 &#179;  &sup3;
Degree sign                   &#176;  &deg;
Multiplication sign           &#215;  &times;
Division sign                 &#247;  &divide;
Plus-or-minus sign            &#177;  &plusmn;

The Complete List of Special Characters

Description                   Char  Code    Entity name
===================================================
Quotation                        "  &#34;   &quot;
Ampersand                        &  &#38;   &amp;
Less-than sign                   <  &#60;   &lt;
Greater-than sign                >  &#62;   &gt;
Non-breaking space                  &#160;  &nbsp;
Inverted exclamation               &#161;  &iexcl;
Cent sign                          &#162;  &cent;
Pound sign                         &#163;  &pound;
Currency sign                      &#164;  &curren;
Yen sign                           &#165;  &yen;
Broken vertical bar                &#166;  &brvbar;
Section sign                       &#167;  &sect;
Spacing diaresis                   &#168;  &uml;
Copyright sign                     &#169;  &copy;
Feminine ordinal indicator         &#170;  &ordf;
Angle quotation mark, left         &#171;  &laquo;
Negation sign                      &#172;  &not;
Soft hyphen                        &#173;  &shy;
Circled R registered sign          &#174;  &reg;
Spacing macron                     &#175;  &hibar;
Degree sign                        &#176;  &deg;
Plus-or-minus sign                 &#177;  &plusmn;
Superscript 1                      &#185;  &sup1;
Superscript 2                      &#178;  &sup2;
Superscript 3                      &#179;  &sup3;
Spacing acute                      &#180;  &acute;
Micro sign                         &#181;  &micro;
Paragraph sign                     &#182;  &para;
Middle dot                         &#183;  &middot;
Spacing cedilla                    &#184;  &cedil;
Masculine ordinal indicator        &#186;  &ordm;
Angle quotation mark, right        &#187;  &raquo;
Fraction 1/4                       &#188;  &frac14;
Fraction 1/2                       &#189;  &frac12;
Fraction 3/4                       &#190;  &frac34;
Inverted question mark             &#191;  &iquest;
Capital A, grave accent            &#192;  &Agrave;
Capital A, acute accent            &#193;  &Aacute;
Capital A, circumflex accent       &#194;  &Acirc;
Capital A, tilde                   &#195;  &Atilde;
Capital A, dieresis (umlaut)       &#196;  &Auml;
Capital A, ring                    &#197;  &Aring;
Capital AE diphthong (ligature)    &#198;  &AElig;
Capital C, cedilla                 &#199;  &Ccedil;
Capital E, grave accent            &#200;  &Egrave;
Capital E, acute accent            &#201;  &Eacute;
Capital E, circumflex accent       &#202;  &Ecirc;
Capital E, dieresis (umlaut)       &#203;  &Euml;
Capital I, grave accent            &#204;  &Igrave;
Capital I, acute accent            &#205;  &Iacute;
Capital I, circumflex accent       &#206;  &Icirc;
Capital I, dieresis (umlaut)       &#207;  &Iuml;
Capital Eth, Icelandic             &#208;  &ETH;
Capital N, tilde                   &#209;  &Ntilde;
Capital O, grave accent            &#210;  &Ograve;
Capital O, acute accent            &#211;  &Oacute;
Capital O, circumflex accent       &#212;  &Ocirc;
Capital O, tilde                   &#213;  &Otilde;
Capital O, dieresis (umlaut)       &#214;  &Ouml;
Multiplication sign                &#215;  &times;
Capital O, slash                   &#216;  &Oslash;
Capital U, grave accent            &#217;  &Ugrave;
Capital U, acute accent            &#218;  &Uacute;
Capital U, circumflex accent       &#219;  &Ucirc;
Capital U, dieresis (umlaut)       &#220;  &Uuml;
Capital Y, acute accent            &#221;  &Yacute;
Capital THORN, Icelandic           &#222;  &THORN;
Small sharp German sz ligature     &#223;  &szlig;
Small a, grave accent              &#224;  &agrave;
Small a, acute accent              &#225;  &aacute;
Small a, circumflex accent         &#226;  &acirc;
Small a, tilde                     &#227;  &atilde;
Small a, dieresis (umlaut)         &#228;  &auml;
Small a, ring                      &#229;  &aring;
Small ae diphthong (ligature)      &#230;  &aelig;
Small c, cedilla                   &#231;  &ccedil;
Small e, grave accent              &#232;  &egrave;
Small e, acute accent              &#233;  &eacute;
Small e, circumflex accent         &#234;  &ecirc;
Small e, dieresis (umlaut)         &#235;  &euml;
Small i, grave accent              &#236;  &igrave;
Small i, acute accent              &#237;  &iacute;
Small i, circumflex accent         &#238;  &icirc;
Small i, dieresis (umlaut)         &#239;  &iuml;
Small eth, Icelandic               &#240;  &eth;
Small n, tilde                     &#241;  &ntilde;
Small o, grave accent              &#242;  &ograve;
Small o, acute accent              &#243;  &oacute;
Small o, circumflex accent         &#244;  &ocirc;
Small o, tilde                     &#245;  &otilde;
Small o, dieresis (umlaut)         &#246;  &ouml;
Division sign                      &#247;  &divide;
Small o, slash                     &#248;  &oslash;
Small u, grave accent              &#249;  &ugrave;
Small u, acute accent              &#250;  &uacute;
Small u, circumflex accent         &#251;  &ucirc;
Small u, dieresis (umlaut)         &#252;  &uuml;
Small y, acute accent              &#253;  &yacute;
Small thorn, Icelandic             &#254;  &thorn;
Small y, dieresis (umlaut)         &#255;  &yuml;

Inserting Symbols in Windows

In any Windows application, you can insert characters via the numeric keypad:

  1. Press the Num Lock key (above the numeric keypad) to turn on NumLock. (To test: press 5 in the numeric keypad. If a 5 appears in your document, NumLock is on. If no 5, press NumLock and try again.)
  2. Select the font.
  3. Look at the following table of characters.
  4. Hold down the Alt key and type the character code on the numeric keypad. Example: To insert w (code 0119), type Alt+0119.
  5. Release the Alt key.

Character Codes for the Numeric Keypad

0033   !    00070   F    00107   k    00144        00181       00218   Ú
0034   "    00071   G    00108   l    00145   '    00182       00219   Û
0035   #    00072   H    00109   m    00146   '    00183       00220   Ü
0036   $    00073   I    00110   n    00147   "    00184       00221   Ý
0037   %    00074   J    00111   o    00148   "    00185       00222   Þ
0038   &    00075   K    00112   p    00149        00186       00223   ß
0039   '    00076   L    00113   q    00150   -    00187       00224   à
0040   (   00077   M    00114   r    00151   -    00188   ¼    00225   á
0041   )    00078   N    00115   s    00152       00189   ½    00226   â
0042   *    00079   O    00116   t    00153   ™    00190   ¾    00227   ã
0043   +    00080   P    00117   u    00154       00191       00228   ä
0044   ,    00081   Q    00118   v    00155       00192   À    00229   å
0045   -    00082   R    00119   w    00156       00193   Á    00230   æ
0046   .    00083   S    00120   x    00157        00194   Â    00231   ç
0047   /    00084   T    00121   y    00158        00195   Ã    00232   è
0048   0    00085   U    00122   z    00159       00196   Ä    00233   é
0049   1    00086   V    00123   {    00160        00197   Å    00234   ê
0050   2    00087   W    00124   |    00161       00198   Æ    00235   ë
0051   3    00088   X    00125   }    00162       00199   Ç    00236   ì
0052   4    00089   Y    00126   ~    00163       00200   È    00237   í
0053   5    00090   Z    00127        00164       00201   É    00238   î
0054   6    00091   [    00128        00165       00202   Ê    00239   ï
0055   7    00092   \    00129        00166       00203   Ë    00240   ð
0056   8    00093   ]    00130       00167       00204   Ì    00241   ñ
0057   9    00094   ^    00131       00168       00205   Í    00242   ò
0058   :    00095   _    00132       00169   ©    00206   Î    00243   ó
0059   ;    00096   `    00133   ...  00170       00207   Ï    00244   ô
0060   <    00097   a    00134       00171       00208   Ð    00245   õ
0061   =    00098   b    00135       00172       00209   Ñ    00246   ö
0062   >    00099   c    00136       00173        00210   Ò    00247   
0063   ?    00100   d    00137       00174   ®    00211   Ó    00248   ø
0064   @    00101   e    00138       00175       00212   Ô    00249   ù
0065   A    00102   f    00139       00176       00213   Õ    00250   ú
0066   B    00103   g    00140       00177       00214   Ö    00251   û
0067   C    00104   h    00141        00178       00215       00252   ü
0068   D    00105   i    00142        00179       00216   Ø    00253   ý
0069   E    00106   j    00143        00180       00217   Ù    00254   þ

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